Automated Street Light Adjustment System on Campus with AI-Assisted Data Analytics

1. Introduction

One of the ten key messages from the United Nations predicts that the world population is expected to reach 8 billion in 2022 and to reach its peak at over 10 billion by the 2080s [1]. Traditional infrastructures in cities could not reach global standards everywhere in all aspects according to the current rate of population increase, along with the rapid change in global civilization, which has led to both development and disruption in many major cities around the world. The concept of a smart city was introduced and became widely popular, based on the development of various smart devices, applications of the Internet of Things (IoT), and global attention on improvement in the quality of life [2]. The six characteristics that described the smart city concept, according to Giffinger et al. [3] and Perera et al. [4], are smart governance, smart living, smart economy, smart people, smart mobility, and smart environment. Throughout this paper, the focus is on smart environment characteristics in the smart city motivating the implementation of an automatically adjusted smart street lighting system with the application of artificial intelligence enabling the light prediction functionality.

One of the examples is the implementation at Eindhoven, in the Netherlands, where the first set of smart street lighting implementations was introduced to the public in 2014, with the expectation of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions [5]. This also included a computer system to control each lighting device individually and automatically based on the circumstances in the area, such as weather and pedestrian conditions. Nowadays, there are various approaches and initiatives in different cities that build up smart city concepts to provide their citizens with a more convenient and improved quality of life through the renovation of their current existing infrastructure and digital transformation at all levels. Other adaptations of smart street light systems can be seen in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, under the Amsterdam Smart City (ASC) project, which is equipped with remotely controllable light devices adjusted in accordance with the surrounding environment, with similar focuses on energy and carbon dioxide emissions [


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