Impact of Urbanization on Eco-Efficiency of Tourism Destinations

1. Introduction

Tourism is particularly important in achieving all 17 Sustainable Development Goals, specifically those on no poverty (SDGs1), decent work and economic growth (SDGs8) [1]. Every year, hundreds of millions of tourists participate in international and domestic travel, which is a global industry [2]. However, since the 20th century, climate change, mainly caused by carbon emissions, has attracted global attention [3]. Tourism is an environmentally dependent sector and the relationship is a fluid and changing one [4]. Research has found that the carbon emissions of the tourism industry account for 8% of global gas emissions, and this proportion will be even larger in the future. Specifically, the emissions increased from 3.9 to 4.5?GtCO2e, and the global carbon footprint was four times the previous estimate [5]. The government and businesses have realized that tourism development and activity as ‘business-as-usual’ are not sustainable for the environment, or for future economic development [4].  Read More  

© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

Jing Zhang

?Sustainability & LEED