Residential Building Energy Conservation in Mediterranean Climate Zone by Integrating Passive Solar and Energy Efficiency Design Strategies

1. Introduction

Lighting, heating, cooling, ventilation, and other energy-intensive processes are the primary reason for the exact purpose of higher energy consumption in buildings. Additionally, energy is consumed during the manufacturing of the building materials; meanwhile, the transportation of those components from their place of manufacture to their final destination also consumes additional energy. The building industry has a huge potential for energy reductions as worldwide awareness of energy and environmental concerns rises. As a result, energy conservation in buildings refers to reducing the energy required for a building’s lifecycle (construction, operation, and maintenance) through pre-design measures, orientation, and use of climatic conditions, such as passive strategies, high thermal mass, renewable energy sources, and natural ventilation which play key roles for energy conservation as well as thermal comfort.

Concern over the usage of fossil fuels and their effects on the environment is on the rise. The prospect of climate change and global warming has increased awareness of the connection between environmental pollution, energy usage, and economic growth [1]. The relationship between economic expansion, energy consumption, and carbon emissions is statistically significant. Both rich and emerging nations have seen significant increases in energy consumption, and it is anticipated that this trend will continue.

In 2019, the building and construction industry accounted for 36% of worldwide final energy consumption and 39% of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, according to the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) 2020 report on energy usage in buildings. This makes it the biggest end-use sector for energy, surpassing both industry and transportation.

Although progress has been achieved in increasing the energy efficiency of buildings, notably in developed nations, the report adds that the fast development of building stock in developing economies means that total energy consumption and emissions from the sector are still on the rise. The IEA stresses the need for more ambitious and integrated policies and initiatives to increase energy efficiency and decrease emissions in the building sector [2].

Numerous studies have been carried out globally on building envelope designs, construction, sensitivity and optimization, life-cycle analysis, control of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) installations, and lighting …


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