It is a fact that concrete is one of the most competitive building materials and that it has the potential to last for centuries . It can be blended with fly ash (FA), silica fume, blast furnace slag, meta kaolinite, and limestone powder. Modern concrete typically incorporates air-entraining agents, superplasticizers, retarders, and corrosion-inhibiting compounds. Thus, we are dealing with a complicated, not-fully understood binder system . Significant opportunities for concrete optimization exist, namely, facilitating the use of new processing, mixing, and setting techniques . Determining whether a product is valuable and worth buying for the customer is impossible until the relationship between the cost of the product and its functions is resolved. Value engineering (VE) is a systematic and organized technique for providing the reliable performance of functions to meet customer needs at the lowest overall cost . Products cannot compete in today’s market solely based on price. Consumers will not buy a product if it is too expensive in comparison to the value it provides. Therefore, the manufacturer will have to achieve the optimal balance between product value and price. It is important to strike a balance between features and price. This equilibrium is what gives a product its worth. Products are judged by their value to the consumer . In countries that do not have fly ash supplies locally, such as Egypt, producing fly ash cement is more expensive than ordinary cement due to import costs. Despite its superior performance over ordinary cement, the higher price makes fly ash cement an unjustified investment; additionally, the cement industry is known for its low-profit margins. However, if the life cycle cost of cement is included in the equation, then alternative cement can be viewed as economically attractive. Meanwhile, consideration of performance, durability, and long-term environmental effects, as shown by value comparison, also plays a key role in the market’s adoption, establishing higher confidence in the material and making it significantly more desirable.
Many studies have used VE in construction and concluded that it has an impact on project prices, quality, the environment, …
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