Author Contributions

Conceptualization, M.A. and G.K.M.M.R.; methodology, M.A., M.H.K. and M.M.R.; software, M.A. and M.H.K.; validation, M.S.A. and G.K.M.M.R.; formal analysis, M.A.A., M.H.K. and H.A.M.; data curation, M.A., M.H.K. and M.A.A.; writing—original draft preparation, M.A. and G.K.M.M.R.; writing—review and editing, M.H.K., G.B., S.M.M.I. and Y.K.G. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Acknowledgments

The authors express their sincere thanks to the Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS), Ministry of Education for funding to complete this research. The authors also express their sincere thanks to M Sahadat Hossain, Department of Soil Science, Sylhet Agricultural University (SAU), Sylhet, Bangladesh, Md. Meftaul Islam and Md. Harunur Rashid, The University of Newcastle, Australia, for their suggestions to prepare manuscript.

Figure 1.
Map showing composite sampling points in four industrial areas in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh.

Figure 1.
Map showing composite sampling points in four industrial areas in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh.

Figure 2.
Percent increase of heavy metal concentrations compared to the industry establishment year; (a) Cd, (b) Pb, (c) Ni, (d) Fe, (e) Zn, and (f) Cu (in parenthesis year of establishment).

Figure 2.
Percent increase of heavy metal concentrations compared to the industry establishment year; (a) Cd, (b) Pb, (c) Ni, (d) Fe, (e) Zn, and (f) Cu (in parenthesis year of establishment).

Figure 3.
Spatial distributions of (a) chemical (SL) industrial and (b) textile and paints (MIX) industrial area soils.

Figure 3.
Spatial distributions of (a) chemical (SL) industrial and (b) textile and paints (MIX) industrial area soils.

Figure 4.
Spatial distributions of (a) dyeing (CK) industrial and (b) sweater and dyeing (RD) industrial area soils.

Figure 4.
Spatial distributions of (a) dyeing (CK) industrial and (b) sweater and dyeing (RD) industrial area soils.

Table 1.
Mean concentration (mg kg?1) of different heavy metals in industrial contaminated paddy field soils.

Table 1.
Mean concentration (mg kg?1) of different heavy metals in industrial contaminated paddy field soils.

IndustryCdPbNiFeZnCuSL0.46 ± 0.08 b36.70 ± 3.85 c2.42 ± 0.32 b147.65 ± 10.64 a11.27 ± 1.33 a6.88 ± 0.48 aMIX0.72 ± 0.06 a104.20 ± 4.59 a5.02 ± 0.81 a82.31 ± 5.38 c7.29 ± 0.62 b4.18 ± 0.42 bCK0.33 ± 0.05 b96.80 ± 5.25 b2.77 ± 0.73 b143.86 ± 10.29 a10.28 ± 1.33 ab7.67 ± 0.76 aRD0.38 ± 0.05 b64.80 ± 6.74 b1.61 ± 0.25 b109.58 ± 8.6 b8.09 ± 0.80 b5.29 ± 0.33 bMin0.33 ± 0.0536.70 ± 3.851.61 ± 0.2582.31 ± 5.387.29 ± 0.624.18 ± 0.42Max0.72 ± 0.06104.20 ± 4.595.02 ± 0.81147.65 ± 10.6411.27 ± 1.337.67 ± 0.76CV%39.7721.8162.3723.4736.4727.55SE0.087.380.8212.691.500.74

Table 2.
Background value of different industry and PTE-MPC value* of different heavy metals.

Table 2.
Background value of different industry and PTE-MPC value* of different heavy metals.

Heavy MetalBackground Value (mg kg?1)PTE-MPC Value * SLMIXCKRD Cd0.150.500.100.270.30Pb10.0073.000.6518.00300.00Ni01.4001.101.0001.0050.00Fe96.0060.0092.068.60-Zn09.4607.083.6203.12250.00Cu06.0203.923.9401.19100.00

Table 3.
Single factor pollution index (SFPI) for Cd, Pb, Ni, Fe, Zn, and Cu in industrial contaminated paddy field soils.

Table 3.
Single factor pollution index (SFPI) for Cd, Pb, Ni, Fe, Zn, and Cu in industrial contaminated paddy field soils.

IndustryCdPbNiMeanMinMaxMeanMinMaxMeanMinMaxSL3.131.286.373.671.205.501.730.712.79MIX1.430.871.931.431.161.734.561.008.00CK3.271.586.811.491.151.922.770.908.20RD3.721.505.641.200.561.801.790.563.11 FeZnCuSL1.541.052.031.190.221.581.140.461.33MIX1.371.011.711.030.611.391.070.311.35CK1.561.072.062.841.074.641.940.812.79RD1.370.991.882.591.304.142.081.142.57

Table 4.
Nemerow’s multi-factor pollution index (I) of heavy metals in soils.

Table 4.
Nemerow’s multi-factor pollution index (I) of heavy metals in soils.

MetalsIndustrySLMIXCKRDIPLIPLIPLIPLCd5.02Heavy1.70Light5.34Heavy4.78HeavyPb4.68Heavy1.59Light1.72Light1.53LightNi2.32Moderate6.51Heavy6.12Heavy2.54ModerateFe1.80Light1.55Light1.83Light1.64LightZn1.40Light1.22Light3.85Heavy3.45HeavyCu1.24Light1.22Light2.40Light2.34Moderate

Table 5.
Contamination factor (CF)* of heavy metals in different industrial contaminated paddy soils.

Table 5.
Contamination factor (CF)* of heavy metals in different industrial contaminated paddy soils.

IndustryPbCdNiFeZnCuRD3.24 b1.28 b0.02 b2.32 × 10?3 b0.09 b0.12 bCK4.84 a1.09 b0.05 b3.05 × 10?3 a0.11 ab0.17 aSL1.84 c1.53 b0.04 b3.13 × 10?3 a0.12 a0.15 aMIX5.21 a2.39 a0.07 a1.74 × 10?3 c0.08 b0.09 bMin1.841.090.021.74 × 10?30.080.09Max5.212.390.073.13 × 10?30.120.17CV%21.8139.7462.3723.4736.4727.55SE0.370.280.012.688 × 10?30.020.02

Table 6.
Geo-Accumulation Index (Igeo)* of heavy metals in industrial contaminated paddy field soil.

Table 6.
Geo-Accumulation Index (Igeo)* of heavy metals in industrial contaminated paddy field soil.

IndustryPbCdNiFeZnCuRD1.03b?0.37 b?6.18 b?9.38 b?4.20 a?3.70 bcCK1.67a?0.59 b?5.58 b?8.98 a?3.92 a?3.22 aSL0.19c?0.15 b?5.52 b?8.94 a?3.83 a?3.34 abMIX1.78 a0.62 a?4.59 a?9.78 c?4.34 a?4.12 cMin0.19?0.59?6.18?9.78?4.34?4.12Max1.780.62?4.59?8.94?3.83?3.22CV%37.36?533.74?16.46?3.64?15.85?14.38SE0.200.280.400.150.290.23

Table 7.
Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI) of heavy metals in industrial contaminated paddy field soil.

Table 7.
Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI) of heavy metals in industrial contaminated paddy field soil.

IndustryPbCdNiFe *ZnCuRD16.20 b38.34 b0.12 b-0.59 b0.02 aCK24.20 a32.72 b0.20 b-0.85 a0.01 bSL09.18 c45.96 b0.18b-0.76 a0.01 bMIX26.05 a71.73 a0.37 a-0.46 b0.01 cMin09.1832.720.12-0.460.01Max26.0571.730.37-0.850.02CV%21.8139.7462.37-27.5513.15SE1.843.890.06-0.086.953 × 10?4

Table 8.
The Pearson’s correlation matrix of Cd, Pb, and Ni in surface soils of the contaminated areas.

Table 8.
The Pearson’s correlation matrix of Cd, Pb, and Ni in surface soils of the contaminated areas.

CdPbNiCd1 Pb0.28321 Ni0.4278 **0.4272 **1

Table 9.
The Pearson’s correlation matrix of Fe, Zn, and Cu in surface soils of contaminated area.

Table 9.
The Pearson’s correlation matrix of Fe, Zn, and Cu in surface soils of contaminated area.

FeZnCuFe1 Zn0.4106 **1 Cu0.6702 ***0.4951 **1

Mahmuda Akter

?  Read More  Environmental Tech, Clean Tech, Smart City, Tech, Green Tech, Eco-Tech, Climate Tech, Bio-Tech